Knowledge gives life to the soul - Imam Ali
Wafat of Masumah-e-Qum (A.S.)
Nov, 13 2018
4 Rabi Al Awwal 1440


النبوّة العامّة


GENERAL PROPHETHOOD




فلسفةُ النُّبوّةِ / The Philosophy of Prophethood

1. التّكامل

1. Perfection

1. الإمامُ الصّادقُ عَلَيهِ السَّلامُ للزِّنديقِ الّذي سألَهُ: مِن أينَ أثبَتَّ الأنبياءَ ؟: إنّا لَمّا أثبَتنا أنّ لَنا خالِقا صانِعا مُتَعالِيا عنّا وعن جَميعِ ما خَلَقَ، وكانَ ذلكَ الصّانِعُ حَكيما مُتَعالِيا لَم يَجُزْ أن يُشاهِدَهُ خَلقُهُ، ولا يُلامِسوهُ، فيُباشِرَهُم ويُباشِروهُ، ويُحاجَّهُم ويُحاجُّوهُ، ثَبَتَ أنَّ لَهُ سُفَراءَ في خَلقِهِ يُعَبِّرونَ عَنهُ إلى خَلقِهِ وعِبادِهِ، ويَدُلُّونَهُم على مصالِحِهِم ومَنافِعِهِم، وما بهِ بَقاؤهُم وفي تَركِهِ فَناؤهُم.
1. Imam al-Sadiq (AS) said to an atheist who asked him, ‘Wherefore did you establish the
[need for and existence of] prophets?’ ‘When we established that we have a Creator and Maker, supreme over us and over all that He created, and that this Maker is so Wise and Supreme that His creation cannot see Him or touch Him, like they can mutually see each other and contend with each other, it hence becomes established that He has ambassadors among His creation who speak on His behalf to His creation and servants. They guide creation to their advantages and benefits, and to that which will secure their survival and the abandonment of which will destroy them.’
[al-Kafi, v. 1, p. 168, no. 1]

2. إنقاذُ الإنسانِ مِن وَلايةِ الطّواغيت

2. Saving Mankind from the Rule of Tyrants

2. الإمامُ عليٌّ عَلَيهِ السَّلامُ: إنّ اللّه تباركَ وتعالى بَعَثَ محمّدا صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيه وَ آلِهِ بالحَقِّ ليُخرِجَ عِبادَهُ مِن عِبادَةِ عِبادِهِ إلى عِبادَتِهِ، ومِن عُهودِ عِبادِهِ إلى عُهودِهِ، ومِن طاعَةِ عِبادِهِ إلى طاعَتِهِ، ومِن وَلايَةِ عِبادِهِ إلى وَلايَتِهِ.
2. Imam Ali (AS) said, ‘Allah, Blessed and most High, sent MuÎammad (SAWA) with the truth to bring out His servants from worshipping His creatures into worshipping Him, from the covenants made with His creatures to His covenants, from obedience to His creatures to obedience to Him, and from being under the rule of His creatures to His rule.’
[al-Kafi, v. 3, p. 386, no. 586]

3. تزكيةُ الأخلاق

3. Purifying Morals


النبوّة العامّة


GENERAL PROPHETHOOD




3. رسولُ اللّه صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيه وَ آلِهِ: بُعِثتُ لاُتمِّمَ مَكارِمَ الأخلاقِ.
3. The Prophet (SAWA) said, ‘I was sent to complete the noble morals virtues.’
[Kanz al-`Ummal, no. 31969]

4. رسولُ اللّه صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيه وَ آلِهِ: إنّما بُعِثتُ لاُتمِّمَ حُسنَ الأخلاقِ.
4. The Prophet (SAWA) said, ‘Verily I was sent to complete good morals.’
[al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, v. p, p. 193]

5. الإمامُ عليٌّ عَلَيهِ السَّلامُ: فـبَعَثَ فيهِم رُسُلَهُ وواتَرَإلَيهِم أنـبياءهُ؛ لِيَستَأدُوهُم مِيثاقَ فِطرَتِهِ، ويُذَكِّروهُم مَنسِيَّ نِعمَتِهِ، ويَحتَجُّوا علَيهِم بالتَّبليغِ، ويُثيروا لَهُم دَفائنَ العُقولِ، ويُرُوهُم آياتِ المَقدِرَةِ.
5. Imam Ali (AS) said, ‘So He sent His messengers among them and He sent prophets one after another to help lead them to the covenant of their innate nature, and they remind them of His blessings that they have forgotten. They show them proofs through propagation, they awaken for them the treasures of their intellects, and they show them the signs of their own potential.’
[Nahj al-Balagha, Sermon 1]

4. رفعُ الاختلاف

4. Lifting Differences

6. الإمامُ عليٌّ عَلَيهِ السَّلامُ: اُنظُروا إلى مَواقِعِ نِعَمِ اللّه علَيهِم حِينَ بَعَثَ إلَيهِم رَسولاً فعَقدَ بمِلَّتِهِ طاعَتَهُم، وجَمعَ على دَعوَتِهِ اُلفتَهُم: كيفَ نَشَرَتِ النِّعمَةُ علَيهِم جَناحَ كَرامَتِها ، وأسالَت لَهُم جَداوِلَ نَعيمِها، والتَفّتِ المِلّةُ بهِم في عَوائدِ بَرَكَتِها، فأصبَحوا في نِعمَتِها غَرِقِينَ!.
6. Imam Ali (AS) said, ‘Look at the various favours of Allah upon them, that He deputed towards them a prophet who got them to pledge their obedience to Him, and made them unite at his call.
[Look] how
[Allah’s] bounty spread the wings of its favours over them and made flow for them streams of its blessing, and the whole community became was covered in blissful prosperity. Consequently they were submerged under its bounty.’
[Nahj al-Balagha, Sermon 192]

5. إتمامُ الحُجّه

5. Completing the Proof
[against them]

7. رسولُ اللّه صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيه وَ آلِهِ: بَعَثَ إلَيهِمُ الرُّسُلَ لِتكونَ لَهُ الحُجّةُ البالِغَهُ على خَلقِهِ، ويكونَ رُسُلُهُ إلَيهِم شُهَداءَ علَيهِم، وابتَعَثَ فيهِمُ النَّبيّينَ مُبَشِّرينَ ومُنذِرينَ ليَهلِكَ مَن هَلَكَ عَن بَيّنَةٍ، ويَحيى مَن حَيَّ عَن بَيّنَةٍ، وليَعقِلَ العِبادُ عن ربهِم ما جَهِلوهُ، فيَعرِفوهُ برُبوبيَّتِهِ بعدَ ما أنكَروا، ويُوحِّدوهُ بالإلهيّهِ بعد ما عَضَدوا.
7. The Prophet (SAWA) said, ‘He sent messengers to them so that He would have the ultimate proof against His creation, and His messengers to them are witnesses over them. He sent among them prophets who were bearers of glad tidings and warners that those who contradict His evidence will perish, and that those who were revived by His evidence will be revived. And that servants may comprehend about their Lord that which they did not know, and come to know Him through His Lordship after they had denied it, and that they may profess His divine unity through His Godliness after they had advocated
[it].’
[al-Tawhid, p. 45, no. 4]

أصنافُ الأنبياءِ عليهم السلام / Categories of Prophets (AS)

8. الإمامُ الصّادقُ عَلَيهِ السَّلامُ: الأنبياءُ والمُرسَلونَ على أربَعِ طَبَقاتٍ :فنَبيٌّ مُنَبّأٌ في نَفسِهِ لا يَعدو غيرَها . ونَبيٌّ يَرى في النَّومِ ويَسمَعُ الصَّوتَ ولا يُعايِنُهُ في اليَقَظَةِ، ولَم يُبعَثْ إلى أحَدٍ وعلَيهِ إمامٌ، مِثل ما كانَ إبراهيمُ على لُوطٍ عليهماالسلام . ونَبيٌّ يَرى في مَنامِهِ ويَسمَعُ الصَّوتَ ويُعايِنُ المَلَكَ، وقد اُرسِلَ إلى طائفةٍ قَلُّوا أو كَثُروا، كيُونُسَ، قالَ اللّه ليونُسَ: «و أرْسَلْناهُ إلى مِائهِ ألْفٍ أو يَزيدونَ. (الصافّات: 147)»، قالَ: يَزيدونَ: ثلاثينَ ألفا وعليهِ إمامٌ . والّذي يَرى في نَومِهِ ويَسمَعُ الصَّوتَ ويُعايِنُ في اليَقَظَةِ وهُو إمامٌ مِثلُ اُولي العَزمِ . وقد كانَ إبراهيمُ عَلَيهِ السَّلامُ نَبيّا وليسَ بإمامٍ حتّى قالَ اللّه : «إنّي جاعِلُكَ للنّاسِ إماما... (البقرة :124)».
8. Imam al-Sadiq (AS) said, ‘Prophets and Messengers are of four classes: a prophet who imparts the tidings to his own self and doe not extend to anyone else; a prophet who sees
[the Unseen] in his sleep and hears sounds but does not see anything when awake, and he is not sent to anyone and he has a leader
[Imam] over him, like how Prophet Abraham (AS) was to Prophet Lot (AS); a prophet who sees in his dream, and he hears and sees the angel, and he is sent to a group, be they small or large, like Prophet Jonah
[Prophet Jonah (AS) is known as Yunus in the Arabic tradition (ed.)] (AS). Allah said about Prophet Jonah (AS): “We sent him to a
[community of] hundred thousand or more,”
[ Qur`an 37:147]
[He continued], ‘or more’ by thirty thousand, and he has an Imam over him too; and a prophet who sees in his sleep, hears the voice, sees while awake, and he himself is an Imam
[leader] like the arch-prophets, and Prophet Abraham (AS) was a prophet and not an Imam
[leader] until Allah said, “I am making you the Imam of mankind”
[ Qur`an 2:124]
[ al-Kafi, v. 1, p. 174, no. 1]

عِدَّةُ الأنبياءِ عليهم السلام / The Number of Prophets (AS)

9. رسولُ اللّه صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيه وَ آلِهِ لَمّا سألَهُ أبو ذرٍّ عن عِدَّةِ الأنبياءِ: مِائهُ ألفٍ وأربَعةٌ وعِشرونَ ألفَ نَبيٍّ . قلتُ: كَمِ المُرسَلونَ مِنهُم ؟ قالَ: ثلاثُمِائةٍ وثلاثةَ عَشَرَ جَمّاءَ غَفيراءَ قلتُ :مَن كانَ أوّلَ الأنبياءِ ؟ قالَ: آدم.
9. The Prophet (SAWA), when Abu Dharr asked about the number of prophets, said, ‘One hundred and twenty four thousand prophets.’ I asked, ‘How many of them are Messengers?’ The Prophet said, ‘Three hundred and thirteen altogether.’ I asked, ‘Who was the first of prophets?’ He said, ‘Adam.’
[al-Khisal, p. 524, no. 13]

اُولو العَزمِ / The Arch-Prophets (Ulu al-`Azm)

10. الإمامُ زينُ العابدينَ عَلَيهِ السَّلامُ لِبَعضِ أصحابهِ ـ: مِنهُم خَمسَةٌ اُولو العَزمِ مِن الرُّسُلِ . قُلنا: مَن هُم ؟ قالَ: نُوحٌ، وابراهيمُ، وموسى، وعيسى، ومحمّدٌ صلَّى اللّه علَيهِم، قُلنا لَهُ: ما معنى اُولو العَزمِ ؟ قالَ: بُعِثوا إلى شَرقِ الأرضِ وغَربِها، جِنِّها وإنسِها.
10. Imam Zayn al-`Abidin (AS) said to some of his companions, ‘From the Messengers there are five arch-prophets.’ We asked, ‘Who are they?’ He said, ‘Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad, peace of Allah be upon them.’ We asked, ‘What does Ulu al-`Azm mean?’ He said, ‘They were sent to the east of the earth and the west, to its Jinn and its humans.’
[BihAr al-Anwar, v. 11, p. 33, no. 25]

11. الإمامُ الصّادقُ عَلَيهِ السَّلامُ لَمّا سألَهُ سماعةُ بنُ مِهرانَ عن قولهِ تعالى: «فاصْبِرْ كَما صَبَرَ اُولو العَزْمِ مِنَ الرُّسُلِ»: نُوحٌ، وإبراهيمُ؛ وموسى، وعيسى، ومحمّدٌ صلَّى اللّه عَليهِ وآلهِ وعلَيهِم .
[قالَ سماعةُ:] قلتُ: كيفَ صارُوا اُولي العَزمِ ؟ قالَ: لأنَّ نُوحا بُعِثَ بكِتابٍ وشَريعَةٍ، وكلُّ مَن جاءَ بعدَ نُوحٍ أخذَ بكِتابِ نُوحٍ وشَريعَتِهِ ومِنهاجِهِ، حتّى جاءَ إبراهيمُ عَلَيهِ السَّلامُ بالصُّحُفِ وبعَزيمَةِ تَركِ كِتابِ نُوحٍ لا كُفرا بهِ .
11. Imam al-Sadiq (AS), when Sumaya b. Mihran asked him about Allah’s verse in the Qur`an: "So be patient just as the resolute among the apostles were patient", said, ‘Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad, peace be upon him, his progeny and them.’
[Sumaya said,] I asked, ‘How did they become the arch-prophets?’ He said, ‘Because Noah was sent with a divine book and law (shari`a), and all who came after him adopted Noah's book, law and teachings, until Abraham (AS) came with the Scriptures being commanded to leave Noah's book without disbelieving in it…’
[al-Kafi, v. 2, p. 17, no. 2]

خصائصُ الأنبياءِ عليهم السلام / Special Characteristics of the Prophets (AS)

12. رسولُ اللّه صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيه وَ آلِهِ: إنّا مَعاشِرَ الأنبياءِ اُمِرنا أن نُكلِّمَ النّاسَ على قَدرِ عُقولِهِم.
12. The Prophet (SAWA) said, ‘Us prophets have been commanded to speak to people according to the capacity of their intellects.’
[Bihar al-Anwar, v. 77, p. 140, no. 19]

13. رسولُ اللّه صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيه وَ آلِهِ: إنّا مَعاشِرَ الأنبياءِ تَنامُ عُيونُنا ولا تَنامُ قُلوبُنا، ونَرى مِن خَلفِنا كما نَرى مِن بَينِ أيدِينا.
13. The Prophet (SAWA) said, ‘Us prophets are such that our eyes sleep but our hearts do not sleep, and we see behind us as we see in front of us.’
[Bihar al-Anwar, v. 16, p. 172, no. 7]

14. رسولُ اللّه صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيه وَ آلِهِ: مِن أخلاقِ النَّبيِّينَ والصِّدِّيقينَ البَشاشَةُ إذا تَراءوا، والمُصافَحَةُ إذا تَلاقوا.
14. The Prophet (SAWA) said, ‘From the morals of the prophets and the righteous ones is smiling when they see people, and shaking hands when they meet each other.’
[TanbIh al-Khawatir, v. 1, p. 29]

15. قَتادَةُ: ما بَعَثَ اللّه نَبيّا قَطُّ إلاّ بَعَثَهُ حَسَنَ الوَجهِ، حَسَنَ الصَّوتِ.
15. Qatada narrated, ‘Allah has never sent a prophet without sending him with a handsome face and a pleasant voice.’
[al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, v. 1, p. 376]

16. الإمامُ عليٌّ عَلَيهِ السَّلامُ في صِفَةِ الأنبياءِ عليهم السلام: كانُوا قَوما مُستَضعَفِينَ، قدِ اختَبرَهُمُ اللّه بالَمخمَصَةِ، وابتَلاهُم بالَمجهَدَةِ، وامتَحَنَهُم بالَمخاوِفِ، ومَخَضَهُم بالمَكارِهِ ... ولَو أرادَ اللّه سبحانَهُ لأنبيائهِ حَيثُ بَعَثَهُم أن يَفتَحَ لَهُم كُنوزَ الذِّهْبانِ، ومَعادِنَ العِقْيانِ، ومَغارِسَ الجِنانِ ... لَفعَلَ، ولَو فَعَلَ لَسَقَطَ البَلاءُ، وبَطَلَ الجَزاءُ ... ولكنَّ اللّه سبحانَهُ جَعَلَ رُسُلَهُ اُولي قُوَّةٍ في عَزائمِهِم، وضَعَفةً فيما تَرَى الأعيُنُ مِن حالاتِهِم، مَعَ قَناعَةٍ تَملَأُ القُلوبَ والعُيونَ غِنىً، وخَصاصَةٍ تَملَأُ الأبصارَ والأسماعَ أذىً.
16. Imam Ali (AS), describing the prophets (AS), said, ‘They were abased people, whom Allah had tried with hunger, afflicted with difficulty, tested with fear, and shaken with troubles. If Allah had wished to open for His prophets treasures of gold, mines of pure gold and grounds of gardens wherever He sent them… He would have done so, but if He did, tests would be invalid, and reward would be inapplicable. Rather, Allah the Glorified, made His prophets strong in their determination, and weak in their appearance as seen from the eyes, with contentment that fills the hearts and eyes with richness, and with poverty that pains the eyes and ears.’
[Nahj al-Balagha, Sermon 192]

17. الإمامُ الصّادقُ عَلَيهِ السَّلامُ: ما بَعَثَ اللّه نَبيّا قَطُّ حتّى يَستَرعِيَهُ الغَنَمَ، يُعَلِّمُهُ بذلكَ رِعْيَةَ النّاسِ.
17. Imam al-Sadiq (AS) said, ‘Allah never sent a prophet unless He had made him herd sheep
[first], through which He taught him how to manage people.’
[`Ilal al-Sharai`, p. 32, no. 1]

18. الإمامُ الكاظمُ عَلَيهِ السَّلامُ: ما بَعَثَ اللّه عز و جل نَبيّا ولا وَصِيّا إلاّ سَخِيّا.
18. Imam al-Kazim (AS) said, ‘Allah, Almighty, did not send a prophet or a successor unless he was generous.’
[al-Kafi, v. 4, p. 39, no. 4]

19. الإمامُ الرِّضا عَلَيهِ السَّلامُ: مِن أخلاقِ الأنبياءِ التَّنَظُّفُ.
19. Imam al-Riza (AS) said, ‘Cleanliness is of the morals of the prophets.’
[Tuhaf al-`Uqul, p. 442]

20. الإمامُ الرِّضا عَلَيهِ السَّلامُ: الطِّيبُ مِن أخلاقِ الأنبياءِ.
20. Imam al-Riza (AS) said, ‘Perfume is of the morals of the prophets.’
[al-Kafi, v. 6, p. 510, no. 1]

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