Knowledge gives life to the soul - Imam Ali
Wafat of Masumah-e-Qum (A.S.)
Nov, 13 2018
4 Rabi Al Awwal 1440


الإرث


INHERITANCE




الإرثُ / Inheritance

1. الإمامُ الصّادقُ عَلَيهِ السَّلامُ لَمّا سُئلَ عن عِلَّةِ إعطاءِ الذَّكَرِ مِثلَ حَظِّ الاُنثَيَينِ :إنّ المرأةَ لَيسَ علَيها جِهادٌ ولا نَفَقَةٌ ولامَعقُلَةٌ (المعقُله بضمّ القاف: الدِّيه، أي لا تصير عاقله في ديه الخطأ وإنّما ذلكَ علَى الرِّجالِ.
1. Imam al-Sadiq (AS), when he was asked about giving the male the share of two females, said, ‘The woman does not have to go for prescribed war (jihad), nor spend money
[for household expenses], nor pay blood money, whereas these are compulsory on the man.’
[al-Kafi, v. 7, p. 85, no. 3]

2. الإمامُ الرِّضا عَلَيهِ السَّلامُ أيضا: عِلَّةُ إعطاءِالنِّساءِ نِصفَ ما يُعطَى الرِّجالُ مِن المِيراثِ لأنَّ المرأةَ إذا تَزَوَّجَت أخَذَت والرّجُلُ يُعطي، فلِذلكَ وُفِّرَ علَى الرِّجالِ . وعِلَّةٌ اُخرى في إعطاءِ الذَّكَرِ مِثلَي ما يُعطى الاُنثى، لِأنَّ الاُنثى في عِيالِ الذَّكَرِ إنِ احتاجَت، وعلَيهِ أن يَعُولَها وعلَيهِ نَفَقَتُها، ولَيسَ علَى المَرأةِ أن تَعُولَ الرَّجُلَ، ولا يُؤخَذُ بنَفَقَتِهِ إنِ احتاجَ، فوَفَّرَ اللّه تعالى علَى الرِّجالِ لِذلكَ، وذلكَ قَولُ اللّه عز و جل: «الرِّجالُ قَوّامُونَ علَى النِّساءِ بِما فَضَّلَ اللّه بَعْضَهُمْ على بَعْضٍ و بِما أنفَقوا مِن أمْوالِهِم».
2. Imam al-Riza (AS), when he was asked about giving the male the share of two females, said, ‘The reason why women are given half of what men are given from the inheritance is because when a woman marries she receives
[the mahr dowry] and the man gives. Therefore it
[i.e. the inheritance] is a greater amount for men. Another reason for giving the male the share of two females is because the female is supported by the family of the male when she is in need, and he has to support her and provide for her expenses. The female does not have to support the male, nor is it taken from her expenses when he is in need. So because of this, Allah Almighty has saved this for the man, and this is according to Allah's verse: "Men are the managers of women, because of the advantage Allah has granted some of them over others, and by virtue of their spending out of their wealth."
[`Uyun Akhbar al-Riza (AS), v. 2, p. 98, no. 1]

مَوانِعُ الإرثِ / Those who are Deprived of Inheritance


الإرث


INHERITANCE




3. رسولُ اللّه صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيه وَ آلِهِ: لا مِيراثَ لِلقاتِلِ.
3. The Prophet (SAWA) said, ‘There is no inheritance for a murderer
[of the deceased].’
[al-Kafi, v. 7, p. 141, no. 5]

4. رسولُ اللّه صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيه وَ آلِهِ: وَلَدُ زِنا لا يَرِثُ ولا يُوَرِّثُ.
4. The Prophet (SAWA) said, ‘An illegitimate child neither inherits nor is inherited.’
[Kanz al-`Ummal, no. 30447]

5. الإمامُ الصّادقُ عَلَيهِ السَّلامُ: المُسلِمُ يَحجُبُ الكافِرَ ويَرِثُهُ، والكافِرُ لايَحجُبُ المُؤمنَ ولا يَرِثُهُ .
5. Imam al-Sadiq (AS) said, ‘The Muslim can prevent access to the disbeliever
[from inheriting him] though he can inherit him, but the disbeliever cannot prevent the believer from access to his inheritance and nor can he inherit from him.’
[al-Kafi, v. 7, p. 143, no. 5]

إرثُ الأنبياءِ / Inheritance of Prophets

6. الإمامُ الباقرُ عَلَيهِ السَّلامُ: جـاءَت فـاطِمَةُ عَلَيها السَّلامُ إلى أبي بـكرٍ تَطلُبُ مِيراثَها، وجاءَ العَبّاسُ بنُ عبدِالمُطَّلبِ يَطلُبُ مِيراثَهُ، وجاءَ مَعَهُما عليٌّ عليه السلام . فقالَ أبو بكرٍ: قالَ رسولُ اللّه صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيه وَ آلِهِ: لا نُوَرِّثُ، ما تَرَكنا صَدَقَةٌ، وما كانَ النَّبيُّ يَعولُ فعلَيَّ، فقالَ عليٌّ: «وَرِثَ سُلَيمانُ داودَ»، وقالَ زكريّا: «يَرِثُني و يَرِثُ مِن آلِ يَعقوبَ»، قالَ أبو بكرٍ: هُو هكذا، وأنتَ واللّه تَعلَمُ مِثلَ ما أعلَمُ؛ قالَ عليٌّ: هذا كِتابُ اللّه يَنطِقُ فسَكَتُوا وانصَرَفوا.
6. It is narrated in al-Tabaqat al-Kubra: Fatima (AS) came to Abu Bakr asking for her inheritance, and `Abbas b. `Abd al-Muttalib also asked for his inheritance. Ali (AS) came with them. Abu Bakr said, ‘The Prophet (SAWA) said, ‘We do not leave inheritance; whatever we leave is charity’, so whatever the Prophet left I am responsible for.’ Ali (AS) said, ‘"Solomon inherited from David", and Zacharias said, ‘"who may inherit from me and inherit from the House of Jacob." Abu Bakr said, ‘That is right, but by Allah you know the same as what I know.’ Then Ali said, ‘This is the Book of Allah talking. So they kept quiet and left.’
[al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, v. 2, p. 315]

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